14 May 2011

USE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA



           
The genetically engineered bacteria be inflicted with found applications in various areas:
A) Crop production and protection through biological control of insects and fungal diseases, coolness destruction.
Genetically engineered bacterial strains be inflicted with been urban to control insects, fungal diseases or coolness destruction and that.
TABLE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA IN CROP PRODUCTION AND
PROTECTION

Bacterium
Altered trait
Possible use
Rhizobium melilotii

Additional copies of ‘nif’ genes
Increased efficiency of N2 fixation
A. Radiobacter
Delection of ‘tra’ gene of Agrocin 84 plasmid
Biological control of crown gall
P. Fluorescens
Addition of lac ZY
Assessment of movement of bacteria pro biological control
Clavibacter xyli

Transfer of B.Thuringiensis delta endotoxin gene
Control of corn ear worm
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Transfer of Serratia marcescens chitinase gene
Control of fungal disease
P. Syringae
Deletion of ‘ice’ gene
Control of coolness damage


TABLE VARIOUS POSSIBLE PATHWAYS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS

Target cell type
Method used pro regeneration
1. Cultured cells or protoplasts
Oranogenesis or embryogenesis via hard skin formation stages
2. Meristem cells from immature kernel or organ
In vitro sow renaissance from transformed cells
3. Cells in immature embryos, spurt and flower meristems
Normal development (in vivo) of kernel, spurt or flower followed by aid of transformed pollen  from chimeric sow to yield transformed seed
4. Pollen
Pollen treated with genetic material used pro pollination leading to the production of transgenic plants
5. Zygote
In vivo development of transgenic plants  




B) PRODUCTION OF CHEMICALS AND FUELS LIKE ANTIBIOTICS, ENZYMES, DIAGNOSTICS ETC.
Genetically engineered strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus casei be inflicted with been prepared pro production of amino acids on a generous extent. Industrially helpful bacteria use cheaper feed stocks (substrates) like D-xylulose, bran. E.G. Zymomonas mobilis (normally incapable of using lactose) transportation cellulase gene from Cellulomonas uda has six fold boost in bran endeavor. E.Coli and Klebsiella planticola transportation genes from Z. Mobiliscould use glucose and xylose to produce most yield of ethanol.
C) Extraction of metals from ores
Plasmids be inflicted with been constructed which as bestow with T. Ferroxidans increases its resistance to arsenite and arsenate which inhibit the growth of bacteria, and increases the recovery of gold from arsenopyrite-pyrite ores. Efforts are vacant on to construct genetically engineered bacteria with enhanced bioleaching or nucleating capabilities which will mess about valuable role in mining and metal extraction.
D) Biodegradation of dissipate from non-biological systems and toxic dissipate treatments
For efficient biodegradation, efficient and competent biodegraders are being prepared using genetic engineering which will aid various catabolic pathways to degrade toxic wastes.

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA USED FOR THE DEGRADATION OF XENOBIOTICS AND TOXIC WASTES
1.         Bacterium:-                                                    Pseudomonas capacia         
            Substrate with the intention of can be degraded:-    2,4,5- trichoro-phenoxyacetic acid

2.         Bacterium:-                                                  P. Putida & other spp (also E.Coli)
             Substrate with the intention of can be degraded:-   2,2,5-dichloropropionate; mono and    dichloroaromatics

3.         Bacterium:-                                                  Alcaligenes sp.
            Substrate with the intention of can be degraded:-    Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diverse chlorophenols; 

             1,4 dichlorobenzene

4.         Bacterium:-                                                    Acinetobacter sp.
            Substrate with the intention of can be degraded:-     4-chlorobenzene


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