29 May 2011

INTRODUCTION


An weighty aspect of all biotechnology processes is the culture of either the transplant cells or physical cells or microorganisms. The cells in culture can be used in support of recombinant chromosome expertise, genetic manipulations and so on.

Plant cell culture is based on the unique property of the cell-totipotency. CELL-TOTIPOTENCY is the knack of the transplant cell to restart into unbroken transplant. This property of the transplant cells has been exploited to restart transplant cells under the laboratory conditions using mock nutrient mediums. With the advances made in genetic engineering, it became workable to introduce foreign genes into cell and tissue culture systems. This led to the development of GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) before TRANSGENIC CROPS which had improved traits and characteristics.

History of cell culture

Taking part in the beforehand 19th century, Schleiden and Schwann wished-for the notion of the 'cell theory'. Taking part in 1902, Gottlieb Haberlandt, the german botanist and regarded as the father of transplant tissue culture, firstly attempted to help the mechanically isolated transplant leaf cells on a down-to-earth nutrient form. He did not succeed in achieving the growth and differentiation of the civilized cells, however, he predicted the notion of growth hormones, the employment of seed sac fluids, the crop growing of mock embryos from somatic cells, and so on.
During the epoch 1902 - 1930, attempts were made to culture the isolated transplant organs such as roots and whiz apices (organ culture). Hanning (1904) isolated embryos of a number of crucifers and successfully grew on limestone salts and sweetie solutions. Simon (1908) successfully regenerated a bulky lump, buds, roots from a poplar tree on the exterior of form containing IAA which proliferated cell division. Gautheret, sallow and Nobecourt (1934-1940) largely contributed to the developments made in transplant tissue culture. Sallow (1939) civilized tobacco tumour tissue from the hybrid Nicotiana glauca, and N. Langsdorffii.
The epoch of 1940 - 1970s motto the development of proper nutrient media to culture transplant tissues, embryos, anthers, pollen, cells and protoplasts, and the rebirth of complete plants (in vitro morphogenesis) from civilized tissues and cells. Taking part in 1941, forerunner Overbek and co-workers used coconut milk (embryo sac fluid) in support of seed development and lump formation in Datura. Steward and Reinert (1959) firstly bare somatic seed production in vitro. Maheswari and Guha (1964) industrial the anther culture in support of the production of haplid plants. Skoog and Miller (1957) later the hypothesis of organogenesis in civilized lump by changeable the ratio of auxin and cytokinin in the growth form. Muir (1953) industrial a flourishing performance in support of the culture of single isolated cells wich is commonly acknowledged as paper-raft nurse performance (placing a single cell on filter paper held in reserve on an actively growing nurse tissue). Taking part in 1952, the Pfizer Inc., New York (U.S.A) got the US patent and happening producing mechanically the secondary metabolites of plants. The firstly infomercial production of a natural result shikonin by cell suspension culture was obtained.
Taking part in 1980s using Genetic engineering, in support of the firstly period, it was workable to introduce foreign genes into cell and tissue culture systems to develop plants with improved characteristics (transgenic crops) which possibly will have a say to the path towards the go along with emerald revolution.

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