27 May 2011

Plant breeding | Recombinant DNA | Organism


Plant breeding
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants for the benefit of mankind.Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques.Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human civilization. It is now practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers.International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher-yielding, resistant to pests and diseases, drought-resistant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.


Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together through the process of gene splicing.In terms of genetic modification, it is created through the introduction of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA, such as the plasmids of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as antibiotic resistance.It differs from genetic recombination in that it does not occur through natural processes within the cell, but is engineered.A recombinant protein is a protein that is produced from recombinant DNA.



Organism
In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell.

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