14 May 2011

Enzyme biotechnology



Enzymes are biological catalysts which initiate and accelerate biochemical reactions in the living cells. They are proteinaceous in nature and can be extracted from living tissues. They are purified and crystallized. The purified enzyme can involve made known a point biochemical result outside the cell. This property of the enzyme has been exploited in it’s aid in the area of biotechnology. The enzymes are furthermore modified through enzyme modeling and can be used pro gene manipulations. The enzymes are purified by following three steps: Dialysis, centrifugation and electrophoresis. The commercially prepared enzymes are purified and at that time concentrated and sterile filtered. This reduces the volume and the microbial contamination of the sample enzyme. Often, previous to storage space and convey, the sample are freeze dried with additives as honey substrates and dextrans.
The enzymes are being used commercially and in Industries. Inside material Industry, ‘Amylases’ are extracted from bacteria, fungi and that and used as softening agents pro starched clothes. Proteolytic enzyme ‘alcalase’ is added in many detergents to remove proteinaceous stains from the clothes. Enzymes isolated from particular bacteria are used commercially to yield acetone, butanol, lactic acid, citric acid and that. Inside meat and beer dispensation, the proteases ‘Papain’ (from papaya) and bromelain (from pineapple) are used to tenderize meat. These enzymes hydrolyze the peptide bonds. Similarly a digit of enzymes like, 'Glucose isomerase’ in soft drink industry,'‘lactase' in ice-cream industry, 'pectinases' in juice and wine dispensation and that are being commercially produced and widely used.
Using biotechnology, especially the practice of immobilized enzyme systems, it was doable to yield a variety of substances e.G. High-fructose corn syrup was produced using immobilized enzyme glucose isomerase.
These immobilized enzymes are worth billions of dollars in the promote and support multibillion dough industries. It is especially a profitable venture since the cost involved in the production of these enzymes is single a part of the regard of the products manufactured.
Immobilization of enzymes is the imprisonment of a biocatalyst in a evident period with the intention of allows chat with, but is separated from bulk period in which substrate, effector or inhibitor molecules are single and monitored. An immobilized enzyme is physically entrapped or covalently bonded by chemicals earnings to an inert and ordinarily insoluble matrix, everywhere it acts in the lead it’s natural substrate.

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