12 May 2011

Treatment of diseases

Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Drugs Through Biotechnology
Various drugs are being manufactured using biotechnology to pick up the tab altered diseases. Using gene therapy, two drugs -Insulin and Interferons control already been  produced. Insulin is used to pick up the tab diabetes and Interferon is used in support of the dealing counter to a number of tumour viruses. It is workable to manufacture these drugs in copious quantities by cloning the corresponding genes from human being or animals through plasmid vectors in bacteria. This procedure brings down the cost of manufacturing the drugs. Lots of examine is plus available on a come to of proteins such as urokinase, dynamic VII:C, human being growth hormone (HGH) and so on. The Human Growth hormone in support of treating dwarfism due to hypopitiuitary action was synthesized using recombinant chromosome performance and was commercially introduced under the bazaar choose of prototropin in USA and somatonorm in Britain. Both Insulin and growth hormone were manufactured under license from Genetech Inc. Based in USA.

Steps used in support of the synthesis of insulin from cloned chromosome segment

Gene therapy
If a youngster or an seed is diagnosed to transport a defective gene leading to disability, following methods are used to correct this defect:
A) replacement of defective gene with a natural gene.
B) correction of the defective gene through gene targeting.
C) gene enlargement through increasing the come to of copies of the gene or through a top level of air of the introduced gene.
All these methods used to correct defective gene is called gene therapy. Out of all these methods, under attack gene modification in support of gene correction or gene enlargement by introducing natural foreign gene sequences are being widely used in gene therapy.
Several reports are already available somewhere under attack gene modification has been demonstrated in mammalian systems. The genes are introduced by gene turning over methods such as electroporation, transfection and so on., followed by position given mutagenesis e.G. HGPRT locus and int-2 loci in mouse embryonal stem cell. Taking part in preceding a small amount of years, permitted gene therapy experiments control been conducted of which the turning over of Neo R/TIL gene clear immune cells into patients with later cancer was flourishing. ADA gene therapy used in support of treating the deficiency of adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) involved the transfection with lymphocytes course the ADA gene agreed by retroviral vector. Taking part in malignancy gene therapy, Tumour necrosis dynamic gene (TNF) or IL-2 gene is inserted in TIL tumour cells isolated from the patients and full-grown in culture. After this these gene corrected cells are injected into the body of the serene.
Taking part in gene enlargement method, a come to of copies of the desired gene are introduced and are made to express next to superior level using air and turning over vectors. After the gene correction next to cellular level, the implantation of the modified cells into a proper region in an organ of the serene or in the seed is agreed not at home. Therefore the gene therapy can be used next to two altered levels: A) seed therapy and b) serene therapy.

Embryo therapy
Taking part in this, the genetic constitution of seed next to post-zygotic level is altered which leads to the alteration in inheritance as well. Embryo therapy involves the following steps which
Control been tried in set of circumstances of mouse or rabbit simply:
A) in vitro fertilization of the egg.
B) Insertion of natural gene into seed next to post-zygotic level either using viruses or speedily by microinjection.
C) Integration of inserted gene in host chromosome, somewhere it possibly will or possibly will not function.
The restorative newly inserted gene possibly will or possibly will not function under natural control in the physical, in period, area and quantity.

Patient therapy
Taking part in serene therapy the cells with healthy genes are introduced in the affected tissue but the inheritance attribute of the serene is not affected or altered.
This therapy involves the following steps:
A) Identification of defective gene
B) Isolation or synthesis of natural healthy gene.
C) Isolation of the cells of the tissue somewhere the natural healthy gene will need to function.
D) The placement of natural gene into a cell somewhere it can function.

Drawbacks of this method.
First in attendance is the option with the purpose of the introduced gene possibly will not function, and the go along with is what time corrected cells are reintroduced, these maybe outnumbered by the sickly neighborhood cells. The other catch is with the purpose of in attendance are simply a small amount of diseases disturbing simply a single tissue.
During the stay fresh a small amount of years, the genes are being routinely isolated. The isolated gene possibly will either be speedily injected into the cell or be agreed by a virus, to which it is linked by recombinant chromosome performance. After entering the cell, the gene either remains limitless in cytoplasm like extrachromosomal chromosome or befall a part of nuclear chromosome . However under both circumstances simply a small amount of copies of genetic material are synthesized as compared to thousands of copies of genetic material for each cell by natural cells.
Gene therapy holds a promising coming and hope in support of patients pain from diseases which can be treated using this performance.

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