11 May 2011

RELATIVE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

Figure  Nomogram pro R.C.F.
Modern time ultracentrifuges can generate forces in surplus of 300,000 era with the intention of of gravity, forces sufficient to overcome the very structure of generally molecules (including the metal of the rotor). The force is ordinarily agreed as approximately regard era with the intention of of gravity.
The centrifugal force is dependent in the lead the radius of the rotation of the rotor, the alacrity by which it rotates, and the design of the rotor itself (fixed slant, against swinging bucket). Rotor alacrity and design can be held constant, but the radius will vary from the top of a centrifuge tube to the underside. If a measurement pro the radius is taken as the mid-point, or as an mean radius, and all forces are mathematically correlated to gravity, at that time lone obtains a relation centrifugal force, labeled as xg. Centrifugation procedures are agreed as xg measures, since RPM and other parameters will vary with the fastidious instrument and rotor used. Relative Centrifugal Force is a constant with the intention of is self-determining of the apparatus used.
Figure F.2 presents a Nomogram pro calculation of R.C.F. Pro a agreed radius and RPM. A unadorned formula pro calculating this regard is:
RCF = 1.12r (RPM/1000)
Everywhere r = radius in millimeters
RPM = revolutions for every little

The problem with using the formula is establishing the regard pro r. Typically, here are three r principles agreed (by the manufacturer) pro a rotor: The most, smallest and mean r. These correspond to the distances from the focal point of rotation to the underside, top and midpoint of the sample tube.

BEFORE

AFTER
The Cornell Accident:
Description of the Cornell Accident -- On December 16, 1998, milk samples were running in a Beckman.L2-65B ultracentrifuge using a generous aluminum rotor. The rotor had been used pro this procedure many era previous to. Approximately lone hour into the surgical procedure, the rotor disastrous due to unwarranted mechanical stress caused by the "G" forces of the distinguished rotation alacrity. The later explosion completely destroyed the centrifuge. The safety defending in the element did not contain all the metal fragments. The half-inch thick sliding steel entrance on top of the element buckled allowing fragments, counting the steel rotor top, to getting away from. Fragments ruined a nearby refrigerator and an ultra-cold freezer in addition to making holes in the walls and ceiling. The element itself was propelled sideways and damaged cabinets and shelving with the intention of controlled ended a hundred containers of chemicals. Sliding cabinet doors prevented the containers from falling to the floor and contravention. A shock wave from the accident shattered all four windows in the opportunity. The shock wave furthermore destroyed the control logic pro an incubator and shook an interior wall causing shelving on the wall to collapse. Fortunately the opportunity was not occupied by the calculate and here were thumbs down private injuries.

SAFETY RULES
ROTOR SAFETY

Http://www.Gac.Edu/cgi-bin/user/~cellab/phpl?Appds/appd-f.Html
There are a digit of safety precautions with the intention of should be adhered to as using one centrifuge and rotor.
Rotor Failure:
All rotors are theme to stress and with calculate will undergo metal fatigue. This is a agreed, and consequently, a detailed history of the rotor aid must be reserved. This is ordinarily not made with clinical centrifuges, but is an absolute pro an ultracentrifuge rotor.
EVERY USE OF  THE ULTRA SPEED CENTRIFUGE ROTOR MUST BE RECORDED IN THE CENTRIFUGE LOG. ABSOLUTELY NO EXCEPTIONS!
After a cycle of aid, all rotor will in curve be derated , with the intention of is its most RPM will be lowered. The Beckman rotors could contain optical alacrity control rings by their corrupt - be guaranteed they are bestow, and clean previous to aid. These diplomacy will strobiscopically watch the most alacrity with the intention of a rotor can be used by. They are replaced as the rotor is derated.
By far the generally ordinary cause of rotor failure is deterioration stress. Salts, highly alkaline detergents and of way biting acids and alkali's will cause decomposition of the coatings on aluminum rotors, which in curve will concentrate stress and eventually upshot in cracks and whole rotor failure. Titanium rotors are more deterioration strong, but more expensive. Ultracentrifuge rotors are expensive (in surplus of \$6,000 all on average) and can be potentially unsafe. At the forces generated in an ultracentrifuge, a rotor failure is the equivalent of a small bomb.