12 May 2011

FORENSIC MEDICINE



Following two techniques bear been used in the area of forensic medicine to identify the culprits and criminals.

      A) RNA fingerprinting using minisatellite RNA

The RNA fingerprinting method was urbanized by Alec Jeffreys and his colleagues in 1985-86. Hip this procedure, RNA is isolated from the blood stains, semen or facial hair roots and at that moment subjected to southern blotting and RNA hybridization with the help of particular RNA probes. The probes correspond to hypervariable minisatellites in RNA which in focus is made up of tandem repeats of unfriendly sequences.
This procedure helps in the identification of criminals, rapists and accused using the blood stains, semen stains and the like on the victim’s clothes or body. It will moreover help in solving the parental issues in pencil case of in doubt parentage.

      B) Autoantibody fingerprinting using dipsticks

Auto antibodies are a novel genre of antibodies to facilitate react with cellular components in humans and other subconscious species. These person van antibodies multiplication in run to from birth up to the age of two years in imitation of which they linger constant in lieu of decades, if not life long. The complement of these antibodies contemporary in an original is unique and in lieu of this motive they bear been named original particular van antibodies. These IS  van antibodies  after physically separated comprise an antibody finger print to facilitate serves to identify inhabit. For this moreover, body fluids such as blood, semen, tears, dribble and perspiration can be used.

The autoantibody fingerprinting protocol involves
A) research of antigen
B) antibody fingerprint assay

The protocol in lieu of autoantibody fingerprinting involves the following steps:

A) A panel of antigen is prepared from an extract of person cells in vitro which involves principal the separation by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on the basis of molecular accumulation.

B) Electrophoretic move of the antigens to a nylon casing.

C) Blocking of the uncontrolled sites by using the blocking agents.

D) Cutting the casing into strips called Dipsticks.

E) Incubation of the dipsticks with dilutions of sera or plasma in lieu of 1 hour.

F) After washing with holding area, incubate in detector molecule (1 micro-Ci/assay of 125 I protein, which binds to the Fc protein of person IgG in the immune center formed) in lieu of 1 hour.

G) After re-washing and drying glance over it with a gamma scanner or an optical scanner or do autoradiography on X-ray film.

H) The results are analyzed in lieu of the identification of those.

Comparison of RNA fingerprinting and Autoantibody finger printing

The advantages of autoantibody fingerprinting more than RNA fingerprinting include the following:

    A) Sensitivity-less than 10 microl blood considered necessary.

    B) Rapidity-only only some hours considered necessary as instance consuming method of RNA extraction is not necessary.

    C) Simplicity-no requirement in lieu of some equipment.

    D) Cost effectiveness

    E) Portability

    F) Autoantibody fingerprints are related in the newborn young person and the nurse but are atypical in genetically identical those like identical twins. It is not probable to distinguish this using RNA fingerprinting.

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