16 May 2011

Introduction to Spectroscopy


A. Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic waves are made as an thrilling meadow and a magnetic meadow hurl made known waves of energy with the intention of overlap.
Electromagnetic waves exist in a large range of frequencies and wavelengths and can travel through all media. When they are absorbed, electromagnetic waves can yield excitement. Electromagnetic waves power an  amazing digit of things we aid each time. Radio waves enable us to transmit and receive sound ended splendid distances. X-rays consent to us think it over inside people's bodies to check pro kaput bones. Microwaves help us lukewarm up food in a hasten and transmit television signals using satellites. Even the sun itself transmits electromagnetic waves in the form of ultraviolet_radiation. 

Spectroscopy
Introduction
Spectroscopy is the aid of the captivation, emanation, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by topic to qualitatively or quantitatively study the topic or to study corporal processes. The topic can be atoms, molecules, atomic or molecular ions, or solids. The interaction of  radiation with topic can cause redirection of the radiation and/or transitions linking the energy levels of the atoms or molecules.

Absorption: A transition from a decrease level to a privileged level with conveying of energy from the radiation meadow to an absorber, atom, molecule, or solid.

Emission: A transition from a privileged level to a decrease level with conveying of energy from the emitter to the radiation meadow. If thumbs down radiation is emitted, the transition from privileged to decrease energy levels is called nonradiative decay.

Scattering: Redirection of light due to its interaction with topic. Scattering might or might not occur with a conveying of energy, i.E., the scattered radiation might or might not be inflicted with a vaguely uncommon wavelength compared to the light thing on the sample.

Atomic Energy Levels
Introduction
The energy levels of atoms are quantized and be inflicted with definite, discrete energies. The energies are measured relation to the energy vital to remove an electron, which is called the ionization the makings of the atom. The map shows the energy levels pro the H atom. Transitions linking energy levels with the intention of occupy the captivation or emanation of light is the meadow of spectroscopy.
H atom energy levels information see this:-
1,  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atomic/grotrian.html
2,  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydcol.html#c3
Molecular Energy Levels
The bonding of atoms to form molecules or solids changes the orbitals with the intention of electrons can occupy, and therefore furthermore changes the energies of the electrons. Bonded atoms furthermore can vibrate and the atmosphere will be inflicted with quantized energy states. Molecules in the chatter period or in solution can rotate which solely like atmosphere will be inflicted with definite rotational energy states.



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