1 Jun 2011

USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN REDUCING THE USE OF CHEMICAL PESTICIDES, HERBICIDES AND FERTILIZERS


A set of dispute is free on the overdo of substance herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers. They turn into an environmental hazard for the reason that they undergo degradation by microorganisms and ultraviolet light which releases toxic chemicals in the ecosystem. Using biotechnology, bacterial pesticides and viral pesticides are being urban which will help in dipping the worth of substance pesticides. Several companies in USA like Monsanto, Mycogen, Ecogen, Repligen, Zoecon and so on are actively involved in the development of biological pesticides. The trials are free on to worth the genetically engineered live soil bacteria instead of coating seeds otherwise planting. Another method being tried is to eradicate the recombinant bacteria and apply them to the leaves of crop plants. Both these approaches shelter the toxin from degradation by microbes or ultraviolet emission one time practical to the crop plants.
The company Ecogen Inc. Was involved in rising biological pesticides critical of the two major crop pests budworm and ballworm by transferring a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into either a purely occurring soil bacterium or in to a strain of Pseudomonas. Bt insecticides are already being marketed instead of ancient times a small amount of years and in expectations these will be modified using genetic engineering and will be used critical of a variety of insects.
Genetically engineered insect hardy plants hold been successfully produced which will broaden help in dipping the worth of insecticides in the expectations.
The experiments are free on to develop environmentally safe herbicides. Indoors order to worth these herbicides instead of crop protection programme, genetically engineered herbicide hardy plants hold been produced in a variety of crop plants. This will ensure the worth of environmentally safer herbicides.
Biofertilizers
Biofertilizers are additionally being used in place of substance fertilizers to broaden reduce the environmental hazards caused due to substance fertilizers. The name biofertilizers is used to refer to the nutrient inputs of biological origin to support stand growth which is in the main achieved by the addition of microbial inoculants as a source of biofertlizers. Biofertilizers broadly includes the following categories:
A)Symbiotic nitrogen fixers- The diazotrophic microorganisms are the symbiotic nitrogen fixers with the aim of assist as biofertilizers e.G. Rhizobium sp., Bradyrhizopium sp.
B) Asymbiotic nitrogen fixers- The asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria can without delay convert the gaseous nitrogen to nitrogen rich compounds. On the death of these nitrogen fixers, the soil becomes enriched with nitrogenous compounds by this means serving as biofertilizers e.G. Azobacter sp., Azospirillum sp.
The blue developing algae, multiply in the hose logging conditions and fixes the nitrogen. They accumulate the biomass which helps in humanizing the corporeal properties of the soil. This is constructive instead of retrieval of alkaline soils likewise only if partial tolerance to pesticides. The the largest part frequent blue developing algae are Azobacter sp. And Azospirillum sp. Azolla, which is an water fern contains an endophytic cynobacterium Anabaena azollae in the leaf cavities only if symbiotic link. Azolla with Anaebaena is constructive as biofertilizer.
C) Phosphate solubilising bacteria- Some bacteria like Thiobacillus, Bacillus are accomplished of converting non-available inorganic phosphorus present-day in the soil to organic or inorganic form of phosphate. These bacteria can additionally turn out siderophores, which chelates with iron, and makes it unavailable to pathogenic bacteria. Siderophores are iron-binding low molecular emphasis (400- 1,000 Daltons) peptides synthesized by more or less soil bacteria.
D)         Organic fertilizers- Certain types of organic wastes are used as fertilizers e.G. Brute dung (cow dung, elephant dung and so on.), urine, urban garbage, mess, crop residues and lubricate cakes. All these wastes can be converted in to organic manures.
Advantages of using biofertilizers

-           Biofertilizers enrich the tolerance of plants critical of toxic deep metals.
-           It is viable to reclaim briny or alkaline soil by using biofertilizers.
-           Use of biofertilizers helps in scheming environmental pollution.
-           Fertility of soil is increased time afterward time.
-           Low cost and tranquil to turn out.
-           Biofertilizers enlarge the physico-chemical properties of the soil, soil grain and hose holding ability.
Some of the limitations encountered while using the biofertilizers are with the aim of they without help cannot endure the entirety needs of the plants instead of nutrient supply and additionally they organize not turn out the spectacular results as experimental in artificial fertilizers. It is main to evolve an come close to which can boost the worth of biofertilizers and reduce the dependency on the substance fertilizers in the nearly expectations with unfashionable heartwarming the crop productivity. This will help us to solve the ecosystem allied problems caused due to overdo of substance fertilizers....

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