9 Jun 2011

TRANSGENIC FARM ANIMALS


A transgenic creature is an party in which a gene (or genes) from a further party has been artificially inserted with the extra genetic in rank forming a stable part of the genome and being voted for on to their offspring according to the Mendelian laws of inheritance. So far, transgenic cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbits, and chicken be inflicted with been produced.
After fertilization a mammalian kernel passes through many stages of development such as formation of pronuclei, morula formation, blastocyst formation, implantation and that. Using these ahead of schedule development stages of mammalian embryos, genetic engineers be inflicted with used uncommon methods to introduce foreign genes into the genome.
Table A catalog of transgenic animals produced with their promoter, enhancer and structural transgenes


Methods to induce foreign genes into the genome
A) Micro-injection in to a pronucleus
A fertilized egg is held in a pipette by suction and several copies of the foreign genes are injected into lone of the pronuclei via a micropipette. Although this has been the generally widely used and generally thriving method, 30% of the treated embryos degenerate and go to meet your maker with in a hardly any hours.
B) Using retroviruses as vectors to involve foreign genetic material into morulas.
A morula is placed on a culture of fibroblasts infected with retrovirus with removing the
Zona pellucida layer. The virus cannot infiltrate this layer therefore it is essential to make divest of it. The retrovirus, genetically engineered to involve foreign genetic material, infect the cells of the morula as they are shed from the fibroblast. This practice often creates ‘mosaic offspring’, everywhere approximately cells contain the foreign gene while others sort out not.
One of the limitations of this practice is with the intention of the modified virus cannot leave the transgenic species and under particular conditions it may possibly metamorphose rescue its skill to cause disease in the tissues everywhere it occurs.
C) Retroviral infection of the stem cells, which are at that time injected into the cavity of a further blastocyst.
Inside this method, stem cells, from the inner cell bulk of an kernel, are infected with genetically-engineered retroviruses, at that time injected into the central cavity of a uncommon blastocyst. The injected cells colonise the extra kernel and participate in the formation of all the tissues, counting the ovaries and testes from which cells are formed. This practice has been used to yield transgenic mice and hamsters.
The initially transgenic animals produced were mice, into which a gene cloning pro rat growth hormone was inserted by microinjection. Two techniques were used to introduce the extra gene into the mouse genome:
A) equally many as 10000 copies of the rat gene were injected into a pronucleus of a fertilized mouse egg, using a microneedle.
B) After behavior with calcium chloride, to get on to them more permeable, the rat genetic material was useful to the outside of a 2-8- celled mouse kernel in culture.
The treated eggs, or embryos were at that time transplanted into foster mothers. Embryos with the inserted genes were identified by genetic material hybridization with small samples of genetic material from white blood cells or skin cells. Transformed adult mice produced the growth hormone primarily in their livers very than pituitary gland everywhere it is normally synthesized.
This practice can be used successfully to conveying other genes such as persons distressing the properties of mane, hides, cold tolerance, disease-resistance and milk production which might help to yield strains of till animals with fiscal benefit ended existing breeds and stocks. Inside this regard, investigate is vacant on to aid techniques which can increase the quality of the till animals. Inside this regard, following two techniques are of splendid substance.

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