14 Jul 2011

Lung cancer - small cell

Cancer - lung - small cell, small cell lung cancer, SCLC

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lung cancer is a rapidly developing. Non-small cell lung cancer more often stretch to more.
Small cell lung cancer, there are three different types:
    Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer)
    Mixed small cell / large cell carcinoma
    Combined small cell carcinoma
The small cell lung cancer are the oat cell type.
Causes, circumstances, and risk factors

All cases of lung cancer, small cell lung cancer is 15%. Small cell lung cancer, is slightly more common in women than in men.
We can say that, of the SCLC, in all cases caused by smoking. SCLC is rare for those who never smoked.
The most aggressive form of lung cancer SCLC. This is usually the center of the chest breathing tubes (bronchi) will be held. The cancer cells are small, they are growing very quickly and create large tumors. These tumors are often the brain, liver, bone, as well as other parts of the body for (metastasize) quickly spread.
SYMPTOMS
    Bloody sputum (phlegm)
    Chest pain
    Cough
    Loss of appetite
    Shortness of breath
    Weight loss
    Wheezing
Other possible symptoms of this disease:
    Facial swelling
    Fever
    Hoarseness or changing voice
    Difficulty swallowing
    Weakness

Signs and tests
Access to the physical exam and ask questions about the history of medicine and health. You are asked to smoke, etc. If there is, how much and how long smoked. Will be
Listen to chest with a stethoscope, the health and sometimes a partial lung collapse can hear fluid around the lungs or territories. The results of each (but not always) may offer cancer.
Small cell lung cancer is usually diagnosed when it spread to other parts of the body.
That may be performed, tests include:
    Bone scan
    Chest x-ray
    Full blood count (CBC)
    CT scan
    Liver Function Tests
    MRI
    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
    Sputum test (cytology, looking for cancer cells)
    Thoracentesis (the fluid in the lungs from the chest cavity)
In some cases, the health of the lungs for examination under a microscope may be necessary to remove a piece of tissue. This is called a biopsy. There are a few ways to do this:
    Bronchoscopy with biopsy
    CT scan-directed needle biopsy
    Endoscopic esophageal biopsy with ultrasound (EUS)
    Mediastinoscopy with biopsy
    Open lung biopsy
    Pleural biopsy
Usually, if a biopsy reveals cancer, more imaging tests to find cancer, the stage is. (Stage of the tumor and how much and how big it is spread.) SCLC is classified as:
    Limited (breast cancer only and may be treated by radiation therapy)
    Extensive (cancer spread outside the chest)
The majority of cases, large.

Treatment
SCLC is spreading rapidly within the body, because the treatment of oral cancer-killing drugs or injected into the body (chemotherapy) should be included. Usually, the chemotherapy drug etoposide combined with cisplatin or carboplatin.
Combination chemotherapy and radiation treatment is given with the SCLC. However, treatment is free, only symptoms. There is no cure for this disease.
Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells with strong x-rays or other forms of radiation are used. Radiation therapy can be used if surgery and chemotherapy. Radiation can be used for:
    Surgery is not possible, as well as with chemotherapy, cancer treatment
    Cause cancer, respiratory problems and symptoms such as swelling of free help.
    When the cancer spread to the bones of cancer pain-free Help
Frequently, SCLC, other than brain cancer, there are signs of any symptoms or even the brain might be widespread. As a result, radiation therapy for brain cancer in some patients with small or for those who respond to chemotherapy may be a good first round. This method of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is called.
Very few patients with SCLC at the time of diagnosis of the disease spread because it often helps with surgery. It is not spread, surgery can be done only when there is a tumor. If there is surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy is required.

References
    Johnson DH, Blot WJ, Carbone DP, et al. The lung cancer: Non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG, eds. AbeloffsClinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2008: Chap 76.

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