9 Sep 2011

The History of Biotechnology



Description
Year
Austrian botanist and monk Gregor Mendel proposes basics laws of heredity based upon his cross-breeding experiments with the pea plant. Although a community journal published his theories, they are ignored in support of done thirty years.
1866
German embroyolgist Walther Fleming was examining salamander larve under a microscope when he noticed tiny threads within the cell's nucleus that appeared to be dividing. These tiny treads are later identified as chromosomes.
1882
The term eugenics is coined by Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin. Galton is an early advocate of improving the human condition via selective breeding.
1883

Twenty-eight years after Fleming obsevred chromosome  within a cell's nucleus, biologist Thomas Hunt Mrogan's experiments with fruit flies reveal that some genetically determined traits are sex linked. In addition his work verifies that the genes reside on chromosomes.

1910

U.S.Biologist Hermann Muller discovers that x-rays can cause genetic mutations in fruit flies.

1926
Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod and Maclyn McCarty demonstrate that DNA, not protein, is the hereditary material in most living organisms. This was accomplished based upon their work with the pneumococcus.
1944
UK physcian Douglas Bevis demonstrates how amniocentesis can be used to test fetuses for the their RH factor compatability. The prenatal test will later be used extensively to screen for a number of genetic disorders.
1950
James D.  Watson and Francis Crick publish their paper on the very nature and structure of DNA. They concluded the paper with the medical understatement of the century,  "this structure (DNA) has novel features, which are of considerable biological interest."

1953
UC-Berkeley biochemist Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat takes apart and then reassembles the tobacco virus, demonstrating "Self Assembly."
10/1956
Using one strand of natural viral DNA to assemble 5,300 nucleotide building blocks, Nobel Laureate Arthur Kornberg's Stanford group synthesizes infectious viral DNA.
12/1967
Science reports that Stanford Geneticist Leonard Herzenberg develops the flourescence-activated
Cell sorter, which can identify up to 5,000 closely related animal cells.

11/1969
UC-Berkeley virologists Peter Duesberg and Peter Vogt discover the first oncogene in a virus. Dubbed SRC, the gene has been implicated in many human cancers.
12/1970
Stanford immunologist Hugh McDevitt reports in Science genes which control immune responses to foreign substances, suggesting predictable susceptibility to some diseases.
1/1972
UC-Berkeley biochemist Bruce Ames develops a test to identify chemicals that damage DNA, The Ames Test becomes a widely used method to identify carcinogenic substances.
3/1973
The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS) publishes a paper by Stanford Geneticists Stanley Cohen and Annie Chang, and UCSF Biochemists Herbert Boyer and Robert Helling describing the first construction of a recombinant DNAmolecule containing the genetic material from two different species.
11/1973
PNAS publishes a paper by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer in which they demonstrate the expression of a foreign gene implanted in bacteria by recombinant DNA methods. Cohen and Boyer show that DNA can be cut with a restriction enzyme, joined together with other enzymes, and reproduced by inserting the DNA into Escherichia coli.
5/1974

Science publishes a letter by Stanford Biochemist Paul Berg and others calling for National Institute of Health Guidelines for DNA Splicing. The letter requests that scientists desist from certain types of recombinant DNA experiments until questions of safety can be addressed
7/1974
Researchers and academicians convene a three-day meeting at Asilomar to debate scientific concerns about gene splicing. A year later the NIH issues guidelines.
2/1975
UCSF virologists J. Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus show that oncogenes appear on animal chromosomes and alternatives in their structure or expression result in cancer.
3/1976
UCSF biochemists Bill Rutter and Howard Goodman report in Science the isolation of the gene for rat insulin.
6/1977
Genentech Inc. Reports expression of the first human protein produced in a microorganism, somatostatin, a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor.
12/1977
After two years of discussion between Stanford and the NIH, the federal government affirms that universities can hold patents and license recombinant DNA inventions.
3/1978
Genentech Inc. And The City of Hope National Medical Center announce the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology.
9/1978
The U.S. Supreme Court holds that life forms can be patented when it allows General Electric's Ananda Chakrabarty a patent covering genetic manipulation techniques.
6/1980

Genentech Inc. Conducts the first biotech initial public offering. The stock price climbs from $35 to $89, settling at $71.25 at the end of the first day.
10/1980
Stanford receives a process patent to make mirror-image molecules known as chimeras, an important step in developing new pharmaceuticals.
12/1980
Cetus completes what was at the time the largest IPO (Initial Public Offering) in U.S. History. Net proceeds top $107 million.
3/1981

Chiron Corp. Chairman Bill Rutter and Research Director Pablo Valenzuela report in Nature a yeast expression system to produce the hepatitis B surface antigen.
6/1981

Alza Corp. Receives FDA approval to market the first product (for motion sickness) based on a transdermal or skin patch, delivery system.
8/1981

Applied Biosystems Inc. Introduces the first commercial gas phase protein sequencer, reducing the amount of protein sample needed to sequence a protein.
3/1982
UCSF neurologist Stanley Prusiner describes a new pathogen, dubbed "prion," which contains little or no genetic material and contributes to degenerative brain diseases.
4/1982
UC-Berkeley Plant pathologist Steve Lindow requests government permission to test genetically engineered bacteria to control frost damage to potatoes or strawberries.
9/1982
Eli Lilly & Company receives FDA approval to sell Genentech  Inc.'s human insulin, the first product of recombinant DNA technology to reach the market.
10/1982
UCSF pediatric immunologist Arthur Ammann warns the Centers for Disease Control that tainted blood can transmit AIDS. Nine months later, the blood bank at Stanford School of Medicine becomes the first to screen blood to prevent AIDS transmission.
12/1982

Syntex Corp.'s diagnostics and drug monitoring subsidiary, Syva Co., receives FDA approval for a monoclonal antibody based diagnostic test for Chlamydia Trachomatis.
1/1983

Applied Biosystems Inc. Begins supplying DNA synthesis instruments using phosphoramadite chemistry, to manufacture synthetic DNA used in probes, primers and gene constructs.

3/1983

SRI International files for a patent for an E. Coli expression vector. Three months later SRI unveils a five year biotechnology business plan.
8/1983
Jay Levy's UCSF lab isolates the AIDS virus at almost the same time it is isolated at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and at the NIH.
11/1983
Cal Bio scientists describe in Nature the isolation of a gene for anaritide acetate, which helps regulate blood pressure and control salt and water excretion.
6/1984
Stanford receives a patent for prokaryote DNA
8/1984
Chiron Corp. Announces the first cloning and sequencing of the entire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome.
9/1984
Genentech's Axel Ullrich reports the sequencing of the human insulin receptor in Nature . Bill Rutter's UCSF team describes the sequencing in Cell two months later.
2/1985
Cal Bio clones the gene that encodes human lung surfactant protein, a major step toward reducing a premature birth complication.
2/1985
Genentech Inc. Receives FDA approval to market human growth hormone. The first recombinant pharmaceutical product to be sold by a biotechnology company.
10/1985
Science reports Cetus Corp.'s GeneAmptm polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, which allows the generation of billions of targeted gene sequence copies in only hours.
12/1985
Disclosure of Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. "Roof-Top" experiments with ice-minus bacteria leads to heightened EPA regulation of open-air trials of engineered organisms.
2/1986
Molecular Devices receives a patent covering a method employing light-generated electrical signals for detecting chemical reactions on the surface of semiconductor chips.
5/1986
The FDA grants Chiron Corp. A license for the first recombinant vaccine, to battle the hepatitis B virus.
7/1986
Chiron Corp. And Ortho Diagnostics Systems Inc. Reach agreement to supply AIDS and hepatitis screening and diagnostic tests to blood banks worldwide.
11/1986
Science publishes a paper by UC-Berkeley chemist Peter Schultz describing how to combine antibodies and enzymes creating "abzymes" to create pharmaceuticals.
12/1986
Calgene Inc. Receives a patent for the tomato polygalacturonase DNA sequence and its use to produce an antisense RNA sequence, to produce extended shelf life fruit.
1/1987
Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. Conducts the first field test of a recombinant organism, Pseudomonas Syringae, a frost inhibitor, on a Contra Costa County strawberry patch.
4/1987
The NIH (National Institute of Health) awards IntelliGenetics Inc. A $17.2 million over five years to administer GenBank(R), the national computerized data bank of nucleic acid sequences.
10/1987
Genentech Inc. Receives FDA approval to market Activase(R) (genetically engineered tissue plasminogen activator) to treat heart attacks.
11/1987
The "Harvard Mouse," created by molecular geneticists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart, now at Genentech Inc., becomes the first mammal patented in the U.S.
4/1988


SyStemix Inc. Receives a license on a patent application for the SCID -hu mouse, an immune deficient mouse with a reconstituted human immune system.
6/1988
Genencor International receives a patent for a process to make bleach-resistant protease enzymes to use in detergents.
7/1988
The first International Biotechnology Expo & Scientific Conference opens in Oakland, CA. IBEX is now the largest conference to focus on the biotech industry.
10/1988
Hoffman-La Roche Inc. And Cetus Corp. Reach a licensing agreement for two anti-cancer drugs, interleukin-2 and Polyethylene Glycol modified IL-2. The move leads the way for further cross-licensing between companies with parallel patents.
12/1988
XOMA Corp. Files for FDA approval to market the first immunoconjugate, CD5 Plus, to treat acute graft-vs.Host disease, a bone marrow transplant complication.
12/1988
XOMA Corp. Files for FDA approval to market E5, a monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic drug, to treat gram-negative sepsis.
3/1989
Stanford University opens the $100 million Beckman Center to link fundamental molecular biology and clinical medicine. Nobel Laureate Paul Berg is named director.
5/1989
Calgene Inc. Conducts its first field tests of antisense tomatoes, to test reduced fruit rotting. This first antisense food product awaits FDAmarketing approval.
5/1989
Syntex Laboratories introduces an anti-viral agent to slow the spread of life-or-sight-threatening cytomegalovirus infections in immuno-compromised patients.
7/1989
Plant Gene Expression Center molecular biologist Athanasios Theologis reports in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA) the cloning of a gene necessary to synthesize ethylene, the ripening hormone and gas.
9/1989
Cutter Biological files for a new drug application for a recombinant Factor VIII biological, the blood-clotting protein missing in people with hemophilia.
9/1989
The first daily, on-line biotechnology business newspaper, BioWorld
Begins publishing in San Mateo, California. The following April, a daily fax version is introduced.
10/1989
Arris Pharmaceutical Corp.'s Monty Krieger describes in Nature the cloning of a gene that could lead to an atherosclerosis therapeutic for heart disease.
2/1990
Science reports that scientists at Genlabs Technologies Inc. And the Centers for Disease Control cloned a portion of the hepatitis E virus.
3/1990
Protein Design Labs Inc. Reports in Cancer Research that its humanized, anti-IL-2 receptor antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular toxicity against target T cells.
3/1990
UCSF and Stanford issue their 100th recombinant DNA patent license. By the end of fiscal 1991, both campuses had earned $40 million from the patents.
3/1990
Calgene Inc. Announces the first successful field trial of genetically engineered cotton plants for use with the herbicide bromoxynil.
3/1990
The FDA licenses Chiron's hepatitis C antibody test, removing a major threat to the nation's blood supply and the screening of donated whole blood.
5/1990
An article in Science by researchers at Athena Neurosciences Inc. Reports on events leading to the formation of the beta amyloid plaque found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients.
6/1990
Two years after UC-Davis pomologists Gale McGranahan and Abhaya Dandekar report the transfer of a foreign gene into a walnut plant, the first woody crop field trial begins.
7/1990
The California Supreme Court rules in the John Moore case that a patient does not have rights to profits from products derived from his own cell line.
7/1990
The FDA approves for sale Burroughs Wellcome Co's synthetic lung surfactant, based on respiratory distress syndrome research conducted by UCSF physiologist John Clements.
8/1990
The Bay Area Bioscience Center, a non-profit public service corporation founded by universities, companies and local government, open it's office.
9/1990
UC-Berkeley epidemiologist Mary-Claire King reports in Sciencefinding a gene linked to breast cancer in families with a high degree of incidence before age 45.
12/1990
The first transgenic dairy cow, created by GenPharm International, Inc. Is born. The cow will be used to produce milk proteins to make infant formula.
12/1990
The Human Genome project begins: The goal is set of mapping the entire human genome by 2005.
6/1990
Cancer patients are treated with a gene therapy that produces the tumor necrosis factor, a natural tumor fighting protein. Genes for deafness, colon cancer, inflammation, and sense of smell are discovered.
1991
Nature publishes the discovery by Plant Gene Expression Center research geneticist Sarah Hake that corn's developmental gene, Kn1, contains a homebox for regulating gene expression.
3/1991
Genes are transferred to treat patients with hereditary high cholesterol, adult brain tumors and neuroblastoma (a  nervous system cancer in infants and children. The genes for adult muscular dystrophy and childhood deafness are discovered.
1992
The first physical maps presented for chromosome 21 and chromosome Y.
6/1992
Genes are transferred to treat patients with cystic fibrosis, malignant melanoma, small-cell lung cancer, and brain tumors. Researchers discover genes for hereditary colon cancer, Huntington disease, hyperactivity, Lou Gehrigs disease, the most common forms of alzheimer's disease, adrenoleukodystrophy, and adult-onset diabetes.
1993
USDA approves genetically engineered tomato and cow hormone that stimulates milk production.
6/1993
The physical maps of the following chromsomes are published: 3,11,12,16,19 and 22.
6/1995
"Dolly" becomes first the mammal cloned.
10/1997
The Human Genome Project and Celara Genomics Inc. Announce a major milestone in mapping the human genome.
6/2000

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